Mechanisms of induced seismicity Both wastewater injection and gas extraction can cause induced earthquakes. Detailed observations from the Midwestern United States and Groningen, Netherlands, show that in both cases, preexisting conditions in Earth's crust are of central importance

Topics: Alternative Energy, Earthquake, Geophysics, Green Energy

Since 2009, the Midwestern United States has seen a dramatic rise in earthquakes induced by human activities. Most of these events were caused by massive reinjection of wastewater produced during oil and gas extraction (1, 2). In February 2016, regulators in Oklahoma called for an injection rate reduction after several major events up to moment magnitude 5.8 (Mw 5.8) occurred. On the other side of the Atlantic, an unprecedented number of earthquakes has followed gas extraction from the Groningen field in the Netherlands (3). The Dutch government imposed production cuts after a Mw 3.6 event in August 2012 caused structural damage to houses. Intensive research of these two instances of induced seismicity points to contrasting mechanisms, but in both cases, the natural conditions prior to subsurface activities play a dominant part.

Fifty years ago, Healy et al. determined that fluid injection at depth causes the pore pressure to rise in a preexisting fault, reducing its strength and potentially leading to its failure (4). In contrast, fluid extraction at depth reduces the pore pressure, leading to compaction of the rock mass; the increased rock stress can drive a preexisting fault to failure. In both settings, the two factors that control induced earthquakes are operational parameters, such as the volume that is injected or produced, and natural conditions, such as the presence of preexisting faults and their ambient stress level. Operational parameters are often assumed to dominate, but that notion may reflect limited knowledge of the locations of preexisting faults and their ambient stress level. For regulatory measures to be effective in mitigating induced seismicity, it is crucial to understand the role of the natural conditions that existed before human activities.

How earthquakes are induced

Thibault Candela, Brecht Wassing, Jan ter Heege, Loes Buijze

Science

Views: 30

Comment

You need to be a member of BlackScienceFictionSociety to add comments!

Join BlackScienceFictionSociety

Badge

Loading…

IMPORTANT ALERTS

ALERT! ALERT! ALERT! 

IF YOU ARE HAVING TROUBLE CHANGING YOUR PROFILE  PICTURE, SWITCH TO EITHER CHROME BROWSWER OR FIREFOX. THERE IS A KNOWN ISSUE WITH INTERNET EXPLORER THAT CAUSES TROUBLE CHANGING PICTURES.


PLEASE DO NOT SIGN IN WITH FACEBOOK IF YOU ALREADY HAVE AN ACCOUNT. YOU WILL CREATE A DUPLICATE THAT WILL NOT HAVE YOUR INFO CONNECTED. THANKS

NO SPAMMING

Please do not greet everyone on the site with large images and/or announcements of your book or business. Yes, you want to tell the world, but learn the fine art of subtlety. We have lost numerous members because of the amount of 'friend' mail they instantly receive. This Hurts Everyone.

Also, DO NOT post the same information multiple times throughout the site. It will be deleted without notice.

 

Spam is unsolicited advertising, whether it is posted as comments on other members' pages or is emailed for marketing purposes.

 

Please be considerate. Post your advertisement in the proper Articles/Forum or Group. There are inexpensive marketing channels that reach every member for just $25 on the Advertising tab. You can post your information on your profile and even update your blog as often as you like.

 

We are not into censorship, so please don't make us ask you to leave. Be kind and unselfish - don't spam.

 

Your Account Will Be Deleted Without Warning For Spam.

 

Blog Posts

La Cosa Nostra...

Posted by Reginald L. Goodwin on May 25, 2018 at 7:47am 0 Comments

CBS News Almanac: Al Capone

Topics: Commentary, Existentialism, Politics

Cosa nostra is an Italian phrase for 'our thing'. It is exclusively used to describe Italian and Italian-American Mafia organization. It can sometimes be described as La Cosa…
Continue

Space, Time and Quanta...

Posted by Reginald L. Goodwin on May 24, 2018 at 9:29pm 0 Comments

Credit: Chris Gash

Topics: Astrophysics, Black Holes, Einstein, Quantum Mechanics, Relativity

Physicists believe that at the tiniest scales, space emerges from quanta. What might these building blocks look…
Continue

Tea Leaves and Quantum Dots...

Posted by Reginald L. Goodwin on May 23, 2018 at 10:05am 0 Comments

Image Source: EurekAlert!

Topics: Biology, Biomedicine, Cancer, Nanotechnology, Quantum Dots

We now have a…
Continue

Extraction!

Posted by Ronald T. Jones on May 22, 2018 at 2:10pm 0 Comments

https://www.amazon.com/Extraction-Ronald-T-Jones-ebook/dp/B079Z1GMDQ/ref=sr_1_1?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1526999566&sr=1-1&keywords=Extraction+by+ronald+t.+jones

Far future Earth. Humanity is no longer isolated, having established relations with other sentient species across the stars. But humans remain divided among a group of Regional Coalitions that have replaced the old nation-states.Tensions between the Coalitions threaten an already tenuous peace maintained by Unified Earth, a representative body that has tried to speak with one human voice to the galaxy. Unified Earth asks the African Union, a major Regional Coalition power, to rescue a group of humans that have been kidnapped by marauders and taken to a distant,…

Continue

Graphene Mirabilis...

Posted by Reginald L. Goodwin on May 22, 2018 at 12:40pm 0 Comments

Illustration: Nanotools Bioscience

Topics: Biology, Cancer, Graphene, Nanotechnology, Research

See: "Annus mirabilis" at Wikipedia for the cultural reference.…

Continue

Product Review Updates

Posted by Stephen Alexander on May 21, 2018 at 9:31pm 1 Comment

Occasionally, I will update members of the club as to the status of products I've reviewed.

Here's what I learned this week.

  • Katharos: The Shattered World is returning from hiatus with a new site in June. Click the Patreon link for more details
  • Keloid has made its Indiegogo goal and has the funds it needs for season 2. They may have started production. Their Indiegogo page did not say. Click the link if you're curious.
  • The Force #2 is in progress. Check out UrbanGodInk Studios at their facebook page.
  • Urban Shogun has a sci-fi comic out now called Sankofa Guard. Check it out…
Continue

The Digital Brothers Multimedia

The Digital Brothers
Our goal is to provide cost effective technological solutions for home, small and big business. After over 20 years of service working in this field, we decided to utilize our talents to develop and cultivate our own vision to benefit the community.
2D & 3D Animation
Graphic & Web Design
Photo & Video
Multimedia Development
Online & Print Marketing

Contact Us Today To Assist In Your Business Success
Website: www.TheDigitalBrothers.com
Email: info@thedigitalbrothers.com

SKYCITY TALKRADIO

THE UNDERGROUND BY ROXANNE BLAND

Life as alpha of a werewolf pack is anything but predictable. But even Parker Berenson is surprised by the latest twist: he’s fallen in love with a space alien. Problem is, he suspects Melera, his sexy new flame, might be the serial killer terrorizing Seattle. Or maybe she isn’t. After all, just because she’s an interstellar assassin doesn’t mean she’s guilty.

http://blackrosepress.com/

© 2018   Created by Jarvis Sheffield - Admin.   Powered by

Badges  |  Report an Issue  |  Terms of Service