Mechanisms of induced seismicity Both wastewater injection and gas extraction can cause induced earthquakes. Detailed observations from the Midwestern United States and Groningen, Netherlands, show that in both cases, preexisting conditions in Earth's crust are of central importance

Topics: Alternative Energy, Earthquake, Geophysics, Green Energy

Since 2009, the Midwestern United States has seen a dramatic rise in earthquakes induced by human activities. Most of these events were caused by massive reinjection of wastewater produced during oil and gas extraction (1, 2). In February 2016, regulators in Oklahoma called for an injection rate reduction after several major events up to moment magnitude 5.8 (Mw 5.8) occurred. On the other side of the Atlantic, an unprecedented number of earthquakes has followed gas extraction from the Groningen field in the Netherlands (3). The Dutch government imposed production cuts after a Mw 3.6 event in August 2012 caused structural damage to houses. Intensive research of these two instances of induced seismicity points to contrasting mechanisms, but in both cases, the natural conditions prior to subsurface activities play a dominant part.

Fifty years ago, Healy et al. determined that fluid injection at depth causes the pore pressure to rise in a preexisting fault, reducing its strength and potentially leading to its failure (4). In contrast, fluid extraction at depth reduces the pore pressure, leading to compaction of the rock mass; the increased rock stress can drive a preexisting fault to failure. In both settings, the two factors that control induced earthquakes are operational parameters, such as the volume that is injected or produced, and natural conditions, such as the presence of preexisting faults and their ambient stress level. Operational parameters are often assumed to dominate, but that notion may reflect limited knowledge of the locations of preexisting faults and their ambient stress level. For regulatory measures to be effective in mitigating induced seismicity, it is crucial to understand the role of the natural conditions that existed before human activities.

How earthquakes are induced

Thibault Candela, Brecht Wassing, Jan ter Heege, Loes Buijze

Science

Views: 57

Comment

You need to be a member of BlackScienceFictionSociety to add comments!

Join BlackScienceFictionSociety

Badge

Loading…

IMPORTANT ALERTS

ALERT! ALERT! ALERT! 

IF YOU ARE HAVING TROUBLE CHANGING YOUR PROFILE  PICTURE, SWITCH TO EITHER CHROME BROWSWER OR FIREFOX. THERE IS A KNOWN ISSUE WITH INTERNET EXPLORER THAT CAUSES TROUBLE CHANGING PICTURES.


PLEASE DO NOT SIGN IN WITH FACEBOOK IF YOU ALREADY HAVE AN ACCOUNT. YOU WILL CREATE A DUPLICATE THAT WILL NOT HAVE YOUR INFO CONNECTED. THANKS

NO SPAMMING

Please do not greet everyone on the site with large images and/or announcements of your book or business. Yes, you want to tell the world, but learn the fine art of subtlety. We have lost numerous members because of the amount of 'friend' mail they instantly receive. This Hurts Everyone.

Also, DO NOT post the same information multiple times throughout the site. It will be deleted without notice.

 

Spam is unsolicited advertising, whether it is posted as comments on other members' pages or is emailed for marketing purposes.

 

Please be considerate. Post your advertisement in the proper Articles/Forum or Group. There are inexpensive marketing channels that reach every member for just $25 on the Advertising tab. You can post your information on your profile and even update your blog as often as you like.

 

We are not into censorship, so please don't make us ask you to leave. Be kind and unselfish - don't spam.

 

Your Account Will Be Deleted Without Warning For Spam.

 

Blog Posts

February Fifteen...

Posted by Reginald L. Goodwin on February 15, 2019 at 6:30am 0 Comments

Image Source: Lawson State Community College (link below)

Topics: African Americans, Civil Rights, Education, Human Rights, Women's Rights

Knoxville College…

Continue

Apathy, Crises and Zappa...

Posted by Reginald L. Goodwin on February 15, 2019 at 6:00am 0 Comments

Image Source: Five Thirty Eight blog

Topics: Civics, Civil Rights, Existentialism, Politics

So what exactly is a constitutional crisis? We should be clear about what does — and, more importantly, does not…
Continue

February Fourteen...

Posted by Reginald L. Goodwin on February 14, 2019 at 6:30am 0 Comments

Johnson C. Smith - The Division of Government Sponsored Programs and Research inducted seven students into its Ronald E. McNair Scholars program. This year’s theme is “Defying Gravity: Launching Scholars Academic Success.”

Topics: African Americans, Civil Rights, Education, Human Rights, Women's Rights

Jarvis…

Continue

Semper Fidelis...

Posted by Reginald L. Goodwin on February 14, 2019 at 6:00am 0 Comments

Topics: Mars, NASA, Opportunity, Planetary Exploration, Spaceflight

NASA's Opportunity Mars rover was built to operate for just 90 days, but kept going for 15 years. NASA officially declared it dead on Wednesday, and its last message to scientists before it went dark eight months ago is getting a lot of attention.

The rover spent a decade and a half sending data bursts, not words, but according to…
Continue

February Thirteen...

Posted by Reginald L. Goodwin on February 13, 2019 at 6:30am 0 Comments

Topics: African Americans, Civil Rights, Education, Human Rights, Women's Rights

Huston-Tillotson University

Huston–Tillotson University is a historically black university in Austin, Texas, United States. The school is affiliated with the United Methodist Church, the United Church of Christ, and the United Negro College Fund. Huston–Tillotson University established in 1881. The University is a member of the Red River Athletic Conference (RRAC). Their colors are maroon and white & their…
Continue

Anthony "Tony" Mitchell...

Posted by Reginald L. Goodwin on February 13, 2019 at 6:00am 0 Comments

Anthony "Tony" Mitchell

Topics: African Americans, Civil Rights, Education, Electrical Engineering, NSBE

“The 2019 BEYA Selection Committee, supported by the Council of Engineering Deans of Historically Black Colleges and Universities and our lead sponsor Lockheed Martin Corporation, have invested in me the authority to…
Continue

The Talented Tenth Saga----PLEASE DONATE

Posted by Christopher Love on February 12, 2019 at 9:17pm 0 Comments

The Talented Tenth Saga will be an 8 issue, limited run comic book series and film.  This series is unique for many reasons.

  • First of all, it will feature real people versus hand drawn or CGI characters. This is why actors and actresses will be sought.
  • Secondly, the main characters in the world of The Talented Tenth Saga will be diverse as the world we live in.
  • And lastly, all 8 issues will be given out for free and can be read at beauty shops, barber shops, schools, libraries and other organizations in local communities starting in Madison County, Alabama and beyond. The film will be uploaded to YouTube and other platforms for free to enjoy and view.

The comic book can be downloaded on IndyPlanet.com

Please support this project.

https://www.ioby.org/project/talented-tenth-saga

Everyone Deserves Heroes That Look Like THEM…

Continue

February Twelve...

Posted by Reginald L. Goodwin on February 12, 2019 at 6:30am 0 Comments

Image Source: Howard University Instagram

Topics: African Americans, Civil Rights, Education, Human Rights, Women's Rights

Harris-Stowe State University…

Continue

Dr. Mark Dean...

Posted by Reginald L. Goodwin on February 12, 2019 at 6:00am 0 Comments

Dr. Mark Dean - Biography.com

Topics: African Americans, Civil Rights, Computer Science, Education, Electrical Engineering

Computer scientist and engineer Mark Dean is credited with helping develop a number of landmark…
Continue

February Eleven...

Posted by Reginald L. Goodwin on February 11, 2019 at 5:44am 0 Comments

Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. visits Fort Valley State College, 1966. Pictured standing next to President Troup (middle).

Topics: African Americans, Civil Rights, Education, Human Rights, Women's Rights

Fort Valley State University…

Continue

The Digital Brothers Multimedia

The Digital Brothers
Our goal is to provide cost effective technological solutions for home, small and big business. After over 20 years of service working in this field, we decided to utilize our talents to develop and cultivate our own vision to benefit the community.
2D & 3D Animation
Graphic & Web Design
Photo & Video
Multimedia Development
Online & Print Marketing

Contact Us Today To Assist In Your Business Success
Website: www.TheDigitalBrothers.com
Email: info@thedigitalbrothers.com

THE UNDERGROUND BY ROXANNE BLAND

Life as alpha of a werewolf pack is anything but predictable. But even Parker Berenson is surprised by the latest twist: he’s fallen in love with a space alien. Problem is, he suspects Melera, his sexy new flame, might be the serial killer terrorizing Seattle. Or maybe she isn’t. After all, just because she’s an interstellar assassin doesn’t mean she’s guilty.

http://blackrosepress.com/

© 2019   Created by Jarvis Sheffield - Admin.   Powered by

Badges  |  Report an Issue  |  Terms of Service